An Introduction to Mine Hydrogeology (SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology)

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Coastal zones have special problems. They are more densely populated than the hinterland, and they exhibit higher population growth rates and urbanization. Water withdrawal is already causing significant land subsidence, that combined to thermo-steric sea level rise, translate in relative sea level rise in coastal areas and salinization of aquifers, 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 Water withdrawal-induced subsidence is reported in many coastal areas of the world, from North America, 24 , 25 , 26 to East Asia, 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 Population growth rates and urbanization in coastal areas are expected to further increase in the future, 32 , 33 Thermo-steric and land subsidence driven relative sea level rise will also reduce arable lands along the coast and within estuaries, 29 , 30 and reshape coastal regions.

Especially coastal regions, which are home to a large and growing share of the global population, are undergoing an environmental decline 33 impacting water availability. The neglected dramatic changes of coastal areas, due to relative sea level rise by land subsidence and thermo-steric effects, that directly and indirectly affect water availability, are missing points in the WWDR. Coral islands are a special case, however affecting a small share of the global population, as they depend on a lens of groundwater for their water supply.

Overuse of water causes shrinkage of the groundwater lens, which eventually leads to saltwater intrusion. Increasing population also leads to more contamination of the groundwater, so many islands are suffering a reduction in water resources as well as increasing pollution. Apart from the discovery of new aquifers, desalination is the most effective measure to increase water resources. However, it is expensive, and it requires significant energy inputs.

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The progress of desalination to is hard to predict, depending on economic and energetic energy issues. The simple message is that water resources will decrease dramatically by Likely, the estimates of the WWDR 1 are not very accurate, and probably optimistic. The problem of water pollution is a weak part of the WWDR. Pollution of water is correlated with population density and economic growth. Non-point source pollution from agriculture and urban areas and industry point source pollution contribute to the pollutant load.

Water pollution will intensify over the next few decades 39 and become a serious threat to sustainable development. Global chemicals used for agriculture currently amount to 2 million tons per year, with herbicides The list of contaminants of concern is increasing, 47 as a novel or varied contaminants are used, often suddenly detected at concentrations much higher than expected.

In brief, the demand for water will increase by but the availability of water will be reduced. Water resources will reduce. Pollution will further reduce the amount of clean fresh water. This aspect is marginally factored in the WWDR. Changes in the ecosystems will be affected by changes in the water demand and availability and vice versa.

Conservation or restoration of the ecosystems will impact on water availability for human consumption, both resources, and quality. Large areas of forests and wetlands have been converted into grasslands, for livestock grazing or production of crops. Wetlands only cover 2. The effects of sea level rise are underrated in. Soils are also changing. Presently, soil erosion from croplands carries away 25 to 40 billion tons of soil every year. Soil erosion and nutrient run-off have negative effects on water quality. Sodicity and salinity take out 0. Ecosystems, biodiversity, and soil degradation are expected to continue to , at an ever-faster rate.

This will have an impact on the availability and quality of water, which is only partially considered in the WWDR. The data presented in, 1 provide an optimistic, but still dramatic, estimation of water scarcity by Their gentle, nature-based-solutions NBS are quite inadequate to tackle this serious problem. Limitation of population and economic growth cannot be enforced easily. Ad hoc responses seem to be necessary but hard to be implemented. Figure 1 presents in a the global water withdrawal, the GPD pro-capita and the world population since the year , and in b the population of the world and of selected countries of Asia and Africa since the year The figure also presents in c the graphical concept of water scarcity, resulting from a more than linear growing demand, and a similarly more than linear reducing availability of clean water.


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It is intuitive that growing demand and shrinking availability will ultimately cross each other, locally earlier than globally. The water withdrawal data to is from. The data to is from ref. Demand for water, same of food or energy, increases with the growth of population and gross domestic product GDP pro-capita. The expected changes in wealth are coupled to alterations in the consumption patterns, including changes to diet.

One example of conflicting demands for water, food, and energy, within a context of regional population and economic growth, is the Mekong Delta.

Reassessing the projections of the World Water Development Report

The morphology of the Mekong Delta as we know today developed in between 5. The relatively stable configuration experienced during the last 3. The delta itself may completely disappear in less than one century. The increased demand for food, water, and energy of a growing population and a growing economy has translated in the extraction of larger quantities of groundwater in the delta, the construction of hydroelectric dams along the course of the river, the diverted water flow for increased upstream water uses, and the riverbed mining for sand. The reduced flow of water and sediments to the delta, 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 coupled to the subsidence from excessive groundwater withdrawal and soil compaction, 58 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 and the thermo-steric sea level rise, 66 , 68 , 74 have translated in the sinking and shrinking of the delta.

In the short term, this has translated in salinization of coastal aquifers, depletion of aquifers, and arsenic pollution of deep groundwater, additional to salinization of soil, flooding, destruction of rice harvesting and depletion of wild fish stocks, impacting on water and food availability, 67 , 68 In the longer term, the delta itself may completely disappear as the result of not sustainable growth.

As previously mentioned, apart from the discovery of new aquifers, increased use of desalination and water purification may lessen the reduction of available water. However, desalination needs significant economic and energetic energy input, difficult to predict. The water withdrawal data is obtained from.

The global water withdrawal is correlated to the world population, but it has been growing faster than the world population. The GPD pro-capita has been growing even faster than the world population. While we do not have any reliable data on water quality and resources vs. Use of fertilizers has grown even faster than the global water withdrawal.

Additionally, because of the relative sea level rise, thermo-steric and groundwater withdrawal generated subsidence, aquifers in coastal lands and estuaries are being rapidly compromised, while fertile lands are turned unproductive, 29 , 30 Similarly, to water demand, also water resources and water quality are thus linked to economic and demographic growths. Opposite to the population and GDP data, the data of fresh water usage, fresh-water resources, and pollution of fresh water, are more difficult to be sorted out with the accuracy needed, making every forecast to problematic.

The most indebted economies in the world are the richer ones, with the United States, China, and Japan accounting for more than half of the global debt, and the poorer countries on their way to becoming indebted. The three key aspects of water scarcity, water demand, water resources, water pollution, are strongly related to population growth and economic growth. They are strongly interconnected, and dramatically variable in space and time, with local conditions that will be much worse than the global conditions.

Many countries are experiencing population growth largely exceeding the already alarming global average. Linear extrapolations to are in some cases in excess, and in some cases in defect, of the values forecast in, 72 demonstrating complex dynamics. It is impossible to provide clean fresh water to support such growth rates. As clean water demand is increasing, and clean water availability is reducing, with local situations much worse than global, clean water demand will eventually exceed the availability of clean water at some local levels much earlier than at the global level.

G7/P7: Indian Ground water resources & Surface water resources

These break-points may occur earlier than in many areas of the world. Considering when a vital resource is in short supply, people will fight for it, provision of water to will be very likely played against a social background of competition and probably conflict if nothing will be done to prevent a water crisis. The paper has discussed the correlation between the exponential growth in global population and GDP and water scarcity, that is the result of the competing water demand, water resources, and water pollution.

Population and economic growth to will be very likely strong, and unequal across the globe, with the largest growth rates expected in third world countries. Water demand to will grow even more than the population and the economy, same of the reduction of water quality and resources. Local patterns will be more critical than global patterns, making the problem more difficult to be solved. Water is ultimately a finite resource and the marginal solutions for water scarcity currently being proposed in the United Nations UN World Water Development Report WWDR will prove hopelessly inadequate by in the absence of any serious effort to tackle these underlying truths.

Reassessing the projections of the World Water Development Report | npj Clean Water

Improvements in the science and technology of water treatment, water management and clean water supply, and in the awareness of water conservation and savings, while developing nature-based-solutions NBS , may certainly alleviate future clean water scarcity. However, a better policy is much more urgent than scientific, technological and philosophical advances, as this will not be enough.

There is a clear regulatory promulgation and enforcement issue especially in the developing countries that needs to be addressed the sooner the better. We need the political will to enforce global regulations, especially where economies and population are building up, as unregulated development is not sustainable anymore.

There is no specific remedial measure to propose, if not to support more sustainable population and economic growths, with local rather than global focus, keeping in mind that growth cannot be infinite in a finite world. However, as noted in, 79 the pursuit of economic growth has been the prevalent policy goal across the world for the past 70 years.


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The aim of this paper is simply to highlight the connection between population and economic growth and water demand, resources and pollution, that ultimately drive water scarcity, and the relevance of these aspects in local, more than global perspective, to stimulate an urgent and comprehensive debate. Burek, P. Mekonnen, M. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity. Kopnina, H. Discussing why population growth is still ignored or denied. Wada, Y. Model Dev. Rosegrant, M. Alexandratos, N. ESA Working paper No.