Java Card for E-Payment Applications (Artech House Computer Security Series)
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Java Card for E-Payment Applications by Vesna Hassler
As a working tool for professionals, this easy-to-understand resource provides clear, detailed guidance on smart, credit and debit cards, JavCard and OpenCard Framework. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Java Card is one of the latest developments in the area of multi-application and platform-independent smart cards.
Basically, there are two types of cryptosystems,namely symmetric or secret key systems, and asymmetric or public key systems. E K is referred to asencryption and DK as decryption. This key is called the secret key since it must remain secret toeverybody except the message sender s and the message receiver s. Obvi-ously, it is necessary that the receiver obtain not only the encrypted message,but also the corresponding key. The encrypted message may be sent over an The key, however, must not be sent over the same channel, andthis leads to a serious problem of symmetric cryptosystems: key management.
The secret key must either be sent over a separate, secure channel e. For the encryption ofsymmetric keys in transfer, a public key mechanism can be used seeSection 2. The one-time pad is also a classictechnique. Invented by Gilbert Vernam in and improved by MajorJoseph Mauborgne, it was originally used for spy messages. The one-time pad is very important for cryptography because it is theonly perfect encryption scheme known.
In other words, the ciphertext yieldsabsolutely no information about the plaintext except its length . The defi-nition of perfect secrecy given by C. Shannon in is actually youngerthan the one-time pad. This is exactly the case with the one-time pad.
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Unfortunately, it makeskey management extremely difficult, since new keys must be exchanged eachtime. The one-time pad key is a large, nonrepeating set of truly random keyletters. The encryption is the addition modulo 26 of one plaintext characterand one one-time pad key character. Plaintext characters are mapped tonumbers corresponding to their positions in the English alphabet.
Java Card for E-Payment Applications
The one-time pad is a symmetric mechanism, since the same key is used for bothencryption and decryption. Its main advantage, apart from not yet being broken by cryptoana-lysts despite its age, is that it can be easily and efficiently implemented inhardware. More information on the background of DES can be found in . DES is a block cipher since it encrypts data in bit blocks. If data islonger, it must be divided into bit blocks. It may happen that the last partof some data is shorter than 64 bits.
In such a case it is usual to fill theremaining part of the block with zeros padding. The result of DES encryp-tion is also a bit block.
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The key has 56 bits and 8 parity bits. The samealgorithm is used for both encryption and decryption, but with reverse keyordering.
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The purpose of confusion is to obscure the relationship between theplaintext and the ciphertext. Substitution is an example of a confusion tech-nique. However, if one encrypts an English text simply by substituting, forexample, letter K for letter A, then someone analyzing the ciphertext can eas-ily conclude that K stands for A by comparing the relative frequency of Kin the ciphertext with the well-known relative letter frequencies for English. There are better substitution techniques that can change the probabilities tosome extent, but in general, substitution alone is not sufficiently secure.
In DES, substitution is done not with letters, but with bit strings. DES Yhas eight different substitution tables called S-boxes. Each S-box uses a 6-bit FLinput and a 4-bit output. Each entry in the table is a 4-bit binary number. For exam-ple, the S-box No. AM The substitution is defined as follows: To determine the row in anS-box, take the first and the last bit of the input. The middle four bits yieldthe column. The output substitution result is the entry at the intersection TEof the row and the column.
For example: S-box No. Table 2.
Security Mechanisms 19 S-boxes are crucial for DES security, although substitution is generallya weak technique. The S-boxes are nonlinear and therefore very difficult toanalyze. It was not until that the design criteria for the S-boxes wereeven published. Diffusion dissipates the redundancy of the plaintext by spreading itout over the ciphertext. An example of a diffusion technique is permutation.
In thisexample, the key is , meaning: Move the first letter to the secondposition, move the second letter to the third position, etc. In DES thereare several permutations.
7.4 Multiapplication ICC
Another type of permutation used in DES is the expansion permutation,which, as the name says, yields a longer output than the input. In this waythe dependency of the output bits on the input bits can occur at an earlierstage in the DES computation. A small change in either the plaintext or thekey produces a significant change in the ciphertext, which is referred to as theavalanche effect. Without this effect it would be easy to observe the propaga-tion of changes from the plaintext to the ciphertext, which would make cryp-toanalysis easier.
A simplified DES computation is shown in Figure 2.
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In each round, a bit subkey computed by the compression permutation isXORed i. The result is fed into the S-boxes. The result ofthe S-box substitution is permuted once more P-box permutation. Beforethe first round the data is permuted with the initial permutation. After the lastround, the intermediate result is permuted for the last time. This final permuta-tion is the inverse of the initial permutation. Like many other symmetric block ciphers, DES is also a Feistel net-work . The name comes from Horst Feistel, who first proposed such a net-work in the early s.
In a Feistel network the plaintext is divided into twohalves for the first round of computation, which is repeated a number of times i.